Monday, February 28, 2005

France, History Of, Kingship

Kingship was the basic institution in the Merovingian kingdom. Since Clovis' reign, the power of the king had extended not only over a tribe or tribes but also over a territory inhabited by Germans of divergent backgrounds and by Gallo-Romans as well. The king exercised power with legal limitations, which, when violated, led to efforts to reestablish political equilibrium

Sunday, February 27, 2005

Cohn, Ferdinand (julius)

Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau, the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant. His father spared no effort in the education of his precocious oldest child, and Ferdinand retained a melancholy

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Port Gibson

City, seat (1803) of Claiborne county, southwestern Mississippi, U.S., 28 miles (45 km) south of Vicksburg, near the Mississippi River on a curve of the Bayou Pierre. It was founded in 1788 by Samuel Gibson, whose cotton plantation became a meeting place for early river travelers. The city has many antebellum buildings, which can be viewed during the annual spring pilgrimage. The survival

Friday, February 25, 2005


Formerly �Itap�a� city, southeastern Paraguay. The city was founded in 1614 on the west bank of the Upper Paran� River, opposite Posadas, Arg., to which it is linked by a bridge completed in 1987. Severely damaged by a tornado in 1926, it is now one of the largest cities of Paraguay and a busy commercial, manufacturing, and communications centre. The city is divided into two sectors: the High (old) City and the

Thursday, February 24, 2005


An account of day-to-day events or a record of experiences, ideas, or reflections kept regularly for private use that is similar to, but sometimes less personal than, a diary.

Wednesday, February 23, 2005

Nova Scotia, Industries

Mining is another major industry in Nova Scotia. Coal is the leading mined product, and some 70 percent of the province's energy needs are met through thermal coal. Salt and anhydrite production also meet a wide demand, and the provincial gypsum deposits yield 75 percent of Canada's supply. There are also significant supplies of barite and construction materials, such

Tuesday, February 22, 2005

Both, Jan

Both first studied with his father, Dirck Both, a glass painter, and then with Abraham Bloemaert. From 1638 to 1641 he lived in Rome with his brother Andries; in the latter year he returned to Utrecht, where he became a prominent

Monday, February 21, 2005

Iron Processing

Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earth's crust, and it is the

Sunday, February 20, 2005


In logic, method of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal. As it applies to logic in systems of the 20th century, the term is obsolete. Traditionally, logicians distinguished between deductive logic (inference in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premise, or drawing new propositions out

Saturday, February 19, 2005

Egyptian Religion

The king was the centre of human society, the guarantor of order for the gods, the recipient of god-given benefits including life itself, and the benevolent ruler of the world for humanity. He was ultimately responsible for the cults of the dead, both for his predecessors in office and for the dead in general. His dominance in religion corresponded to his central political

Friday, February 18, 2005

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb

German philosopher and patriot, one of the great transcendental idealists.

Thursday, February 17, 2005

China 1

Also called �Chicom 1�, or �PRC 1� first Earth satellite orbited by the People's Republic of China. It was launched on April 24, 1970, from the rocket facility at Shuang Cheng Tsu, and it made China the fifth nation to place a satellite into Earth orbit. Little is known about China 1. It weighed approximately 173 kg (381 pounds) and carried a radio transmitter that broadcast a patriotic anthem.

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

Fable, Parable, And Allegory, Modern period

With the Baroque and Neoclassical periods, allegory began to turn away from cosmology and toward rhetorical ambiguity. John Milton allegorized sin and death in his epic poem Paradise Lost, but allegory for him seems chiefly to lie in the ambiguous diction and syntax employed in the poem. Instead of flashing allegorical emblems before the reader, Milton generates

Tuesday, February 15, 2005

Biblical Literature, The translation of Miles Coverdale

A change in atmosphere in England found expression in a translation that, for all its great significance, turned out to be a retrograde step in the manner of its execution, although it proved to be a vindication of Tyndale's work. On October 4, 1535, the first complete English Bible, the work of Miles Coverdale, came off the press either in Z�rich or in Cologne. The edition was soon

Monday, February 14, 2005

Stone, Fred (andrew)

Stone was raised in Topeka, Kan., making his stage debut there at age 11, and soon joined his brother on tour with a number of small circuses. In the 1890s he teamed up with Dave Montgomery and together they toured in vaudeville and minstrel shows before appearing in their first Broadway

Sunday, February 13, 2005

Mammal, Circulatory system

In mammals, as in birds, right and left ventricles of the heart are completely separated, so that pulmonary (lung) and systemic (body) circulations are completely independent. Oxygenated blood arrives in the left atrium from the lungs and passes to the left ventricle, whence it is forced through the aorta to the systemic circulation. Deoxygenated blood from the tissues

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Lorentz Transformations

Set of equations in relativity physics that relate the space and time coordinates of two systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other. Required to describe high-speed phenomena approaching the speed of light, Lorentz transformations formally express the relativity concepts that space and time are not absolute; that length, time, and mass depend

Friday, February 11, 2005

Rubinstein, Anton

In 1835 Rubinstein's father opened a small factory in Moscow, and there in the same year his brother Nikolay was born. Both boys were taught piano, first by their mother and then by Aleksandr Villoing. Anton gave his

Thursday, February 10, 2005


Any member of the superorder Paracanthopterygii, a predatory, primarily marine group that forms one of about six major branches of the Teleostei, or bony fishes, the dominant modern aquatic vertebrates. Approximately 1,160 living species of paracanthopterygian fishes have been described. They range in length from just a few centimetres to roughly two metres (more

Wednesday, February 09, 2005

France, History Of, Loss of control

By August 1786 even Necker's successor, the frivolous if intelligent Charles-Alexandre de Calonne (1734 - 1802), had concluded that the French state was coming to a dead end. Although the crown had assured the moneymen that it would not default on the debt, as indeed it could not have done without alienating thousands of its natural supporters, Calonne found that he could no longer raise

Tuesday, February 08, 2005


Probably the oldest of the Muslim mystic (Sufi) orders, founded by the Hanbali theologian 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1078 - 1166) in Baghdad. Al-Jilani may have intended the few rituals he prescribed to extend only to his small circle of followers, but his sons broadened this community into an order and encouraged its spread into North Africa, Central Asia, and India. The order, which stresses philanthropy,

Monday, February 07, 2005


The ancient Roman latifundia originated from the allocation of land confiscated by Rome from certain conquered communities, beginning in the early 2nd century BC. Earlier, in classical Greece of the 5th century BC, sizable estates were cultivated for high profit, based

Sunday, February 06, 2005

Yale University

Private university in New Haven, Conn., one of the Ivy League schools. It was founded in 1701 and is the third oldest university in the United States. Yale was originally chartered by the colonial legislature of Connecticut as the Collegiate School and was held at Killingworth and other locations. In 1716 the school was moved to New Haven, and in 1718 it was renamed Yale College in honour

Saturday, February 05, 2005

Thomas, Seth

Apprenticed as a carpenter and joiner, Thomas worked building houses and barns until 1807, when, because of his woodworking skills, the clockmakers Eli Terry and Silas Hoadley invited him to join them in a wholesale clockmaking enterprise.

Friday, February 04, 2005

Water Treader

Mesoveliids are predaceous and are usually seen on floating vegetation or on the water surface. One species, Phrynovelia papua of New Guinea, lives in leaves on the forest

Thursday, February 03, 2005

Children's Literature, The discovery of the child

A self-aware literature flows from a recognition of its proper subject matter. The proper subject matter of children's literature, apart from informational or didactic works, is children. More broadly, it embraces the whole content of the child's imaginative world and that of his daily environment, as well as certain ideas and sentiments characteristic of it. The

Wednesday, February 02, 2005


The subject of medicine is treated in a number of articles, the principal of which is medicine, history of. For a treatment of general considerations and current techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, see diagnosis and therapeutics. For fields

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Ambartsumian, Viktor Amazaspovich

Ambartsumian was born of Armenian parents. His