Monday, January 31, 2005

Bulgakov, Mikhail Afanasyevich

Beginning his adult life as a doctor, Bulgakov gave up medicine for writing. His first major work was the novel Belaya gvardiya (The White Guard), serialized in 1925 but never published in book form. A realistic and

Sunday, January 30, 2005

Varthema, Lodovico De

De Varthema also spelled �Di Barthema, �Latin �Vartomanus, or Vertomannus, � intrepid Italian traveler and adventurer whose account of his Middle Eastern and Asiatic wanderings was widely circulated throughout Europe and earned him high fame in his own lifetime. He made significant discoveries (especially in Arabia) and made many valuable observations of the peoples he visited; his ready wit enabled

Saturday, January 29, 2005


Form of nonfictional literature, the subject of which is the life of an individual. One of the oldest forms of literary expression, it seeks to recreate in words the life of a human being, that of the writer himself or of another person, drawing upon the resources, memory and all available evidences - written, oral, pictorial.

Friday, January 28, 2005


In Japanese art, decorative technique used for Buddhist paintings and wooden statues and for lacquerwork. The technique used for paintings and statues employs gold or silver foil cut into thin strips or minute triangular or square pieces, which are laid on designs painted in with glue. The designs consist of straight or curved lines, a wavy vertical stripe pattern

Thursday, January 27, 2005


When the previous emperor died, his mother, the empress dowager Tz'u-hsi, chose her four-year-old nephew

Wednesday, January 26, 2005

Ahl Al-bayt

Shi'ites closely identify this family with the imams, whom they regard as the legitimate holders of authority in the Muslim community, the infallible bearers of sacred knowledge, and the source of messianic

Tuesday, January 25, 2005


Town, Vosges d�partement, Franche - Comt� region, eastern France. It lies along the Moselle River near the latter's confluence with the Moselotte and is surrounded by wooded heights. Remiremont (Romaraci Mons) is named after St. Romaric, a companion of St. Columban at Luxeuil, who in the 7th century founded a monastery and a convent on the hills above the present town. In 910 an

Monday, January 24, 2005


In full� Vaasan L��ni, �Swedish �Vasa L�n, � l��ni (province), western Finland, on the Gulf of Bothnia. The province's land rises from a level but indented coastline through generally forested country, with large cultivated plains, toward an eastern lake region. The timber industry and agriculture are important. The city of Vaasa is the province's administrative capital, main seaport, and largest city. Other important

Sunday, January 23, 2005

Dagobert Iii

Merovingian Frankish king who succeeded his father, Childebert III, in 711. For most of his reign the boy was dominated by Pippin II of Herstal, the Austrasian mayor of the palace.

Saturday, January 22, 2005


The name zonda in Argentina also refers to a hot, humid wind that blows from the north over the plains and precedes a low-pressure centre.

Friday, January 21, 2005

La Paz

City, administrative capital of Bolivia, west-central Bolivia, situated some 42 miles (68 km) southeast of Lake Titicaca. La Paz, which lies between 10,650 and 13,250 feet (3,250 and 4,100 metres) above sea level, is the world's highest national capital. Visitors, upon arrival, find exertion difficult because of the rarefied atmosphere found at these elevations. The centre of the city lies in a deep, broad

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Biblical Literature, The Gospel According to Mark: background and overview

Though the author of Mark is

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Ear, Human, Descending pathways

Parallel with the pathway ascending from the cochlear nuclei to the cortex is a pathway descending from the cortex to the cochlear nuclei. In both pathways some of the fibres remain on the same side, while others cross the midline to the opposite side of the brain. There is also evidence of a �spur� line ascending from the dorsal cochlear nucleus to the cerebellum and

Monday, January 17, 2005

Andrade, M�rio De

Educated at the conservatory in S�o Paulo, Andrade helped organize what proved to be a key event in the

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Blondel De Nesle

Nothing is known about Blondel outside of his poetry. He was probably from Nesle, in Picardy; but the name Blondel may be a nickname, and it is uncertain how many of the 25 songs attributed to him are actually his. His poetry is conventional in its complaints to an unknown lady but contains no references

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Duane - hunt Law

In atomic physics, the relationship between the voltage (V ) applied to an X-ray tube and the maximum frequency n of the X rays emitted from the target. It is named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt. The relationship is expressed as n = Ve/h, in which e is the charge of the electron and h is Planck's constant. This law is sometimes called the inverse photoelectric

Friday, January 14, 2005


Also called �Electron Capture, � one of three beta decay processes that affect atomic nuclei. See beta decay.

Thursday, January 13, 2005

Moscow State University

In full� Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University�, Russian �Moskovsky Gosudarstvenny Universitet Imeni M.V. Lomonosova � state-controlled institution of higher learning at Moscow, the oldest-surviving, largest, and most prestigious university in Russia. It was founded in 1755 by the linguist M.V. Lomonosov and was modeled after German universities, its original faculty being predominantly German. In the second half of the 19th century, Moscow State University became the most important centre

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

Paper Pulp

Rags and other fibres, such as straw, grasses, and bark of the mitsumata and paper mulberry (kozo), have been used as paper pulp. Except for certain special papers (e.g., asbestos paper), nearly all papers are made of cellulosic

Monday, January 10, 2005


Unit of either self-inductance or mutual inductance, abbreviated h (or hy), and named for the American physicist Joseph Henry. One henry is the value of self-inductance in a closed circuit or coil in which one volt is produced by a variation of the inducing current of one ampere per second. One henry is also the value of the mutual inductance of two coils arranged such that

Sunday, January 09, 2005

Syria, Flag Of

In 1917 Husayn ibn 'Ali, king of the Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia), adopted the Arab Revolt Flag, intended to represent all Arab lands. It consisted of three horizontal stripes of black, green, and white with a red triangle at the hoist. The four colours recalled the major dynasties of Arab history - the 'Abbasids, Fatimids, Umayyads, and Hashimites. In March 1918 the Arab Revolt Flag was raised in

Saturday, January 08, 2005

Heinz Company

The company was founded in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1869 by Henry John Heinz (1844 - 1919), who was later to become nationally known as the �Pickle

Friday, January 07, 2005


City, southern Minas Gerais estado (�state�), Brazil. It lies along the Sapuca� River, in the Mantiquiera Mountains, at 2,769 feet (844 m) above sea level. It was made the seat of a municipality in 1848 and given city status in 1862. Although basically a textile centre, it has other industries and serves a region of agriculture (coffee, rice, corn [maize], and sugarcane) and cattle ranching. Goods are

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Adams, Charles Follen

During the American Civil War he was wounded and taken prisoner. In 1872 he began writing humorous verses for periodicals and newspapers in a Pennsylvania German dialect. Collections of his verse are Leedle Yawcob Strauss, and Other Poems (1877) and

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Tippecanoe River

River rising in Tippecanoe Lake in Kosciusko county, northern Indiana, U.S. The river flows 166 miles (267 km) generally southwest into the Wabash River north of Lafayette. Tippecanoe is probably derived from the Miami Indian name for buffalo fish. Between the towns of Buffalo and Brookston on the river's lower course, Lakes Shafer and Freeman are impounded by power dams. At

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

Discus Throw

The sport was known in the days of the Greek poet Homer, who mentions it in both the

Monday, January 03, 2005


In some Christian churches, the office of a bishop and the system of church government based on the three orders, or offices, of the ministry: bishops, priests, and deacons. The origins of episcopacy are obscure, but by the 2nd century AD it was becoming established in the main centres of Christianity. It was closely tied to the idea of apostolic succession, the belief that

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Rob Roy

Rob's father, Donald MacGregor, a younger

Saturday, January 01, 2005

Beast Tale

A prose or verse narrative similar to the beast fable in that it portrays animal characters acting as humans but unlike the fable in that it usually lacks a moral. Joel Chandler Harris's Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings (1880) derived many episodes from beast tales carried to the United States by African slaves. Animal Farm (1945), an anti-utopian satire by George Orwell, is