Tuesday, November 30, 2004

Vytautas The Great

Vytautas was the son of Kestutis, who for years had waged a struggle with his brother Algirdas

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Monluc, Blaise De Lasseran-massenc�me, Seigneur De

The eldest son of an impoverished branch of the great family of Montesquiou, Monluc was brought up as a page at the court of Lorraine. He fought in northern Italy in 1521 - 22 and was with King Francis

Saturday, November 27, 2004


Also spelled �Typhaon, or Typhoeus, � in Greek mythology, youngest son of Gaea (Earth) and Tartarus (of the nether world). He was described as a grisly monster with a hundred dragons' heads who was conquered and cast into the underworld by Zeus. In other accounts, he was confined in the land of the Arimi in Cilicia or under Mount Etna or in other volcanic regions, where he was the cause of eruptions. Typhon was thus

Friday, November 26, 2004

Beretta Spa

The founder of the business, Bartolomeo Beretta, was known as a maestro da canne, or master gun-barrel maker, for the republic of

Thursday, November 25, 2004

L�vka Mountains

Bearing a stream during the

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


There are three categories of breccia: sedimentary, pyroclastic or igneous, and cataclastic. The constituent fragments may be of one lithology such as a rock fractured in position, or of many

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Lowie, Robert H(arry)

Lowie studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University,

Monday, November 22, 2004

Pinar Del R�

Provincia, western Cuba, bounded on the north by the Gulf of Mexico, on the west by the Yucat�n Channel, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, on the southeast by the Gulf of Bataban�, and on the east by La Habana province. Low mountain ranges, including the Sierra de los �rganos and the Sierra del Rosario, form the backbone of the territory, which has an area of 4,218 square miles (10,925 square

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Mercantile Agency

Specialized organization engaged in supplying information on the creditworthiness and financial strength of business firms in highly developed economies. The first such agency, the Mercantile Agency, was founded in New York City in 1841 to reduce credit losses. As businesses expanded from their local area to a national scale, many of them found it impossible to judge

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Petah Tiqwa

City, west-central Israel, on the Plain of Sharon, east-northeast of Tel Aviv-Yafo and part of that city's metropolitan area. Situated in the valley of Achor near the Yarqon River, the city takes its name (meaning �Door of Hope�) from the biblical allusion in Hosea 2:15: � . . . and make the valley of Achor a door of hope.� Petah Tiqwa was the first village (founded 1878) in the modern Jewish settlement

Thursday, November 18, 2004

Abductor Muscle

Any of the muscles that cause movement of a limb away from the midplane of the body or away from a neighbouring part or limb (compare adductor muscle), as in raising the arms to the side (effected by the deltoideus muscle) or spreading the fingers or toes. In man certain muscles of the hands and feet are named for performing this function. In the hand, the abductor digiti minimi

Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Ramazan Dynasty

In 1352 Ramazan, founder of the dynasty, was recognized by the Mamluk sultan of Egypt as the ruler of the ��ok branch of Oguz Turkmen in �ukurova. After a period of attempts to overthrow Mamluk suzerainty, the dynasty's principality about 1418 came under direct Mamluk control and lost its

Tuesday, November 16, 2004


The ancestors of the Baule were a section of the Asante who immigrated to their present location under the leadership of Queen Awura Pokou about 1750, following a dispute over the chieftaincy,

Monday, November 15, 2004


Extrusive igneous rock that is the volcanic equivalent of granite. Most rhyolites are porphyritic, indicating that crystallization began prior to extrusion. Crystallization may sometimes have begun while the magma was deeply buried; in such cases, the rock may consist principally of well-developed, large, single crystals (phenocrysts) at the time of extrusion.

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Alban, Saint

According to the historian Bede, he served in the Roman army and was converted to Christianity by a fugitive priest whom he sheltered and with whom he exchanged clothes, so that he was martyred in the priest's place (c. 304; other dates suggested by scholars are c. 254 or c. 209). His feast day is commemorated

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Ribeir�o Pr�to

City, in the highlands of northeastern S�o Paulo state, Brazil, at 1,700 feet (520 m) above sea level, on the Pr�to River, a tributary of the Pardo River. Founded in 1856 and formerly called Entre Rios and S�o Sebasti�o do Ribeir�o Pr�to, the settlement was given town status in 1870 and was made the seat of a municipality in 1871. It was long renowned as a colonization and coffee-growing centre. Now

Friday, November 12, 2004


Amtskommune (county commune), eastern Jutland, Denmark, created in 1970 from the former county communes of �rhus, Randers, and part of Skanderborg. It extends along Jutland's eastern coast between Mariager and Horsens fjords. The northern part of the county commune is dominated by the Djursland peninsula, an area of castles and estates, including Rosenholm Castle (home

Thursday, November 11, 2004


Also spelled �esthetics, � the philosophical study of beauty and taste. To define its subject matter more precisely is, however, immensely difficult. Indeed, it could be said that self-definition has been the major task of modern aesthetics. We are acquainted with an interesting and puzzling realm of experience: the realm of the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime, and the elegant; of taste, criticism,

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Kunlun Mountains

Chinese (Wade-Giles) �K'un-lun Shan, �or �(Pinyin) �Kunlun Shan, � mountain system of Asia. The Kunluns extend east to west some 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometres) from the Pamirs in Tajikistan on the west to the Kunlun Pass and the adjacent Sino-Tibetan ranges - Pu-erh-han-pu-ta (Burhan Budai), P'a-yen-k'a-la (Bayan Hara), and A-ni-ma-ch'ing (Amne Machin) - on the east. The width of the Kunluns varies considerably but rarely exceeds 125 miles. In the western margins they

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Korean Language

Language spoken by more than 72 million people, of whom 45 million live in South Korea and 24 million in North Korea. There are more than 2 million speakers in China, more than 700,000 in the United States, and somewhat fewer in Japan. More than 200,000 Koreans live in Kazakstan and Uzbekistan. Korean is the official language of both South Korea (Republic of Korea) and North Korea (Democratic People's

Monday, November 08, 2004

Bruno Of Querfurt, Saint

A member of the family of the counts of Querfurt, Bruno was educated at the cathedral school at Magdeburg, Saxony, and at the age of 20 he was attached to the clerical household of the Holy Roman emperor Otto III. In 997 he accompanied Otto to Rome, where he was

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Overbury, Sir Thomas

Overbury was educated at Oxford and entered the Middle Temple, London, in 1598. Having

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Beartooth Range

Segment of the northern Rocky Mountains in the United States, extending east-southeastward for 50 miles (80 km) from the Stillwater River, in southern Montana, to the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River, in northwestern Wyoming. Many peaks rise to more than 12,000 feet (3,700 m), including Granite Peak (12,799 feet [3,901 m]), the highest point in Montana. It was through these mountains that Chief Joseph

Friday, November 05, 2004

Bahr, Hermann

After studying at Austrian and German universities, he settled in Vienna, where he worked on a number of newspapers. His early critical works Zur Kritik der Moderne (1890; �On Criticism of Modernity�) and Die �berwindung des

Thursday, November 04, 2004

Silk Spider

Also called �Golden Silk Spider� (Nephila), any of a genus of the class Arachnida (phylum Arthropoda), so named because of the great strength of their silk and the golden colour of their huge orb webs. These webs often measure one metre (about three feet) or more in diameter and are suspended between trees by guy lines. About 60 species are known to live in the warmer regions of the world. Adult females are very

Wednesday, November 03, 2004


High Alpine valley, about 80 miles (130 km) long, in southeastern France. Drained by the Arc River, a tributary of the Is�re, it consists of a succession of large basins and narrow, wild gorges that are cut through outcrops of heavily folded and overthrust rocks. Twenty-four hydroelectric stations in the valley generate power for electrochemical plants, aluminum refining,

Tuesday, November 02, 2004

Milky Way Galaxy, Emission nebulas

A conspicuous component of the Galaxy is the collection of large, bright, diffuse gaseous objects generally called nebulas. The brightest of these cloudlike objects are the emission nebulas, large complexes of interstellar gas and stars in which the gas exists in an ionized and excited state (with the electrons of the atoms excited to a higher than normal energy

Monday, November 01, 2004

Turgenev, Nikolay Ivanovich

Born into the middle class, Turgenev was one of a number of Russian youths infected by the liberal spirit that emerged in Europe after the French