Sunday, October 31, 2004

Uruguay River

Portuguese �Rio Uruguai, �Spanish �R�o Uruguay, � river in southern South America that rises in the coastal range of southern Brazil. Its chief headstream, the Pelotas River, rises just 40 miles (64 km) from the Atlantic coast at Alto do Bispo in Santa Catarina state, Brazil, and takes the name Uruguay after it is joined by the Canoas River near Piratuba. Flowing west through the coastal range of Brazil (separating Santa Catarina

Saturday, October 30, 2004

Cinnamus, John

Greek �Io�nnis K�nnamos � Byzantine historian, secretary (grammatikos) to the emperor Manuel I Comnenus, whom he accompanied on campaigns in Europe and Asia Minor. Cinnamus's history of the period 1118 - 76, continuing the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, covers the reigns of John II and Manuel I, down to the unsuccessful campaign against the Turks of Iconium when the Byzantines were routed (1176) at Myriocephalon.

Friday, October 29, 2004

African Popular Music

In common with the rest of the world, Africa was strongly affected by the instrumentation, rhythms, and repertoire from the Americas during the 1920s and '30s, as radio and

Thursday, October 28, 2004


In full� Tawaraya Sotatsu� Japanese artist of the Tokugawa period (1603 - 1867) who combined the traditional themes of the indigenous school of Japanese narrative scroll painting, known as Yamato-e, with the bold, decorative designs of the great screen painters of the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1574 - 1600). He pioneered the use of such painting techniques as defining shapes and forms with colour rather than with ink

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Olson, Charles (john)

Olson was educated at Wesleyan University, where he earned an M.A. in 1933. He taught at Clark University, Harvard University, and Radcliffe College, but his real influence began in the late 1940s as an instructor and then as rector (1951 - 56) at Black

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Swabian Alp

German �Sw�bische Alb, � continuation of the Jura Mountains in Baden-W�rttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. The upland plateau extends approximately 100 miles (160 km) from the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) to the W�rnitz River at an average elevation of about 2,300 feet (700 m). The plateau rises in a steep northwestern scarp some 1,300 feet (400 m) above the valleys of the Neckar, Rems, and Fils rivers to its highest

Monday, October 25, 2004


Mythical hero of Troy and Rome, son of the goddess Aphrodite and Anchises. Aeneas was a member of the royal line at Troy and cousin of Hector. He played a prominent part in the war to defend his city against the Greeks, being second only to Hector in ability. Homer implies that Aeneas did not like his subordinate position, and from that suggestion arose a later tradition

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Mcpherson, James B.

After graduation from West Point at the head of the class of 1849, McPherson was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers and held minor army assignments

Saturday, October 23, 2004


Also spelled �Marseilles, �ancient �Massilia, �or �Massalia, � city, capital of Bouches-du-Rh�ne d�partement, France, and also the administrative and commercial capital of Provence-Alpes-C�te d'Azur, one of France's fastest growing r�gions. Located west of the French Riviera, Marseille is one of the major ports of the Mediterranean Sea. It is situated on the Mediterranean's Gulf of Lion within a semicircle of limestone hills and

Friday, October 22, 2004

Arnold, Henry Harley

Arnold graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., (1907), and in 1911 received flying instruction from Orville Wright. He rose in the ranks of the Air Corps;

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Ando Shoeki

Ando was a native of Akita. He practiced medicine at Hachinohe, in the present Aomori prefecture, but became prominent as a social thinker in the 1750s. Ando was critical of the feudal society

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Muhammad I Askia

Also spelled �Mohammed I Askiya, �also called �Askia Muhammad, or Muhammad Ture, �original name �Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Ture, �Ture also spelled �Towri, or Tur�e� West African statesman and military leader who usurped the throne of the Songhai Empire (1493) and, in a series of conquests, greatly expanded the empire and strengthened it. He was overthrown by his son, Askia Musa, in 1528.

Tuesday, October 19, 2004

European Exploration

The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power.

Monday, October 18, 2004

Condorcet, Marie-jean-antoine-nicolas De Caritat, Marquis De

He was descended from the ancient family of Caritat, who took their title from Condorcet, a town in Dauphin�. He was educated

Sunday, October 17, 2004

Condorcet, Marie-jean-antoine-nicolas De Caritat, Marquis De

Judicial organ established in 1959 that is charged with supervising the enforcement of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950; commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights), which was drawn up by the Council of Europe. The convention obligates signatories to guarantee various civil and political freedoms, including

Saturday, October 16, 2004


City, capital of Indre d�partement, Centre r�gion, central France. It lies along the Indre River, south of Orl�ans, on the main road and railway from Paris to Toulouse. It derives its name from a castle built toward the end of the 10th century by Raoul le Large, prince of D�ols. The present Ch�teau Raoul, occupied by the prefecture, dates from the 15th century. An 18th-century mansion,

Friday, October 15, 2004

Olney, Richard

A Boston attorney who had served only one term in the Massachusetts legislature (1873 - 74), Olney was suddenly thrust into national prominence

Wednesday, October 13, 2004

Davidescu, Nicolae

Romanian poet and novelist whose early poems, Inscriptii (1916), showed the influence of Charles Baudelaire. Among his prose works the novel Z�na din fundul lacului (1912; �The Fairy at the Bottom of the Lake�) was an exercise in symbolism, and Vioara muta (1928; �The Muted Violin�), in social psychology. In the epic C�ntecul omului (1928 - 37; �The Song of Man�), he aimed at re-creating world history.

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

Breed Association

Organization that promotes the respective breeds of horses and registers horses that meet certain qualifications. A new association may admit horses that meet certain qualifications but whose parents are not registered; this is called an open association. The qualifications may be type, colour, or speed. Standardbred horses, for example, are admitted to the registry

Monday, October 11, 2004


Also called �Bible Leaf, or Ale Cost� (Chrysanthemum balsamita), aromatic herb of the aster family (Asteracae) with yellow, button-shaped flowers. Its bitter, slightly lemony leaves may be used fresh in salads and fresh or dried as a flavouring, particularly for meats, poultry, and English ale. The dried leaves are also used as a tea and in potpourris.

Sunday, October 10, 2004

Chrestien, Florent

The son of Guillaume Chrestien, an eminent physician and writer on physiology, he became a pupil of Henri Estienne, the Hellenist, at an early age. Later, he was appointed tutor to Henry of Navarre, afterward Henry IV of France, who made him his librarian.

Saturday, October 09, 2004


Town in the central southern panhandle of Laos, on the left bank of the Mekong River. It had a teacher-training school (1911), a public high school (1946), a Buddhist secondary school, a trade school, and the Savannakh�t Technical College before the 1975 communist takeover. Industries in the town included manufacturing of soft drinks, ice making, and a sawmill. There is an airport, and a road

Friday, October 08, 2004

Uccello, Paolo

The standard and most readable and complete work on Uccello (and his followers) in English is John Pope-Hennessy, Paolo Uccello, 2nd ed. (1969). Eve Borsook discusses Uccello's Florentine frescoes in The Mural Painters of Tuscany, from Cimabue to Andrea del Sarto (1960). Uccello's role in the investigation of perspective is mentioned by John White in The Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space, 2nd ed. (1967); and this subject is treated more fully by Alessandro Parronchi in Studi su la dolce prospettiva (1964).

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Biblical Literature, Composition and authorship

The Torah, or Pentateuch (Five Scrolls), traditionally the most revered portion of the Hebrew canon, comprises a series of narratives, interspersed with law codes, providing an account of events from the beginning of the world to the death of Moses. Modern critical scholarship tends to hold that there were originally four books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers)

Wednesday, October 06, 2004

Hidaka Range

The Hidaka Range contains Mount Poroshiri, the highest nonvolcanic

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

Gamburtsev Mountains

Russian �Gory Gamburtseva, � subglacial range in the central part of eastern Antarctica, extending 750 - 800 miles (1,200 - 1,300 km). The mountains attain their greatest height at 11,120 feet (3,390 m). Completely buried under more than 1,970 feet (600 m) of the Antarctic ice cap, they were discovered in 1958 by a Soviet expedition and mapped by seismic reflections.

Monday, October 04, 2004


Wandering ascetic, member of either an ethnic group or a sect, located principally in the Magadha (South Bihar) region of ancient India. The vratyas lived outside the fold of the dominant Aryan society and practiced their own forms of austerity and esoteric rites. Much speculation regarding the vratyas has left unsettled the question of whether they were forerunners

Sunday, October 03, 2004

Bantu Languages

A group of some 500 languages belonging to the Bantoid subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. The Bantu languages are spoken in a very large area, including most of Africa from southern Cameroon eastward to Kenya and southward to the southernmost tip of the continent. Twelve Bantu languages are spoken by more than five million people,

Saturday, October 02, 2004

Hokinson, Helen

Hokinson attended the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and began a career

Friday, October 01, 2004


Any of the more powerful accipiters, or true hawks (i.e., belonging to the genus Accipiter), primarily short-winged, forest-dwelling bird catchers, of which the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is best known. Originally called �goose hawk,� perhaps because of its size and its finely barred gray plumage, this bird reaches about 60 centimetres (2 feet) in length with a 1.3-m (4.3-ft) wingspread.