Thursday, September 30, 2004

Poynings, Sir Edward

A grandson of William Paston, he was a rebel (1483) against Richard III and attached himself to Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, who employed

Wednesday, September 29, 2004


Borough (town), Dauphin county, central Pennsylvania, U.S., just southeast of Harrisburg, at the confluence of Swatara Creek and the Susquehanna River. George Fisher settled the site in 1752 and in 1755 laid out the town, which he named Middletown for its location midway between Lancaster and Carlisle. In 1809 Fisher's son, George, laid out another town (Harborton) at the juncture of the

Tuesday, September 28, 2004

France, History Of, The July monarchy

The renovated regime (often called the July monarchy or the bourgeois monarchy) rested on an altered political theory and a broadened social base. Divine right gave way to popular sovereignty; the social centre of gravity shifted from the landowning aristocracy to the wealthy bourgeoisie. The Charter of 1814 was retained but no longer as a royal gift to the nation; it

Monday, September 27, 2004

Israel, Cultural institutions

Israel has a rich and varied range of cultural institutions, including major libraries, an art institute and artists' colonies, art museums, institutes for archeology and folk life, theatres, concert halls and performing arts centres, and movie houses. A thriving film industry has emerged. In 1953 the Israeli government established the Academy of the Hebrew Language

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Norway, Conflict of church and state

Following the rule of Magnus III's sons, the increasing power of the church and the monarch contributed to a century of civil war. During the early 12th century the kings expanded their direct rule over the various provinces, and the family aristocracy in Norway grew discontented. With the accession of Harald IV (ruled 1130 - 36), interest groups within Norwegian society began

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Great Alfold

Hungarian �Nagy-Alf�ld, �Nagy Magyar Alf�ld�, or �Alf�ld�, English �Great Hungarian Plain� a flat, fertile lowland, southeastern Hungary, also extending into eastern Croatia, northern Yugoslavia, and western Romania. Its area is 40,000 square miles (100,000 square km), about half in Hungary. In its natural state the Great Alfold is a steppeland broken up with floodplain groves and swamps - a southwestern projection of the Russian steppes. In Hungary flood control, irrigation,

Friday, September 24, 2004

La Mancha

Barren, elevated plateau (2,000 ft [610 m]) of central Spain, stretching between the Montes (mountains) de Toledo and the western spurs of the Cerros (hills) de Cuenca, and bounded on the south by the Sierra Morena and on the north by La Alcarria region. It includes portions of the modern provinces of Cuenca, Toledo, and Albacete, and most of Ciudad Real province. It constitutes the southern

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Tea Act

(1773), in British American colonial history, legislative maneuver by the British ministry of Lord North to make English tea marketable in America. A previous crisis had been averted in 1770 when all the Townshend Acts (q.v.) duties had been lifted except that on tea, which had been mainly supplied to the Colonies since then by Dutch smugglers. In an effort to help the financially

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Arafura Sea

Shallow sea of the western Pacific Ocean, occupying 250,000 square miles (650,000 square km) between the north coast of Australia and the Gulf of Carpentaria and the south coast of New Guinea. It merges with the Timor Sea on the west and the Banda and Ceram seas on the northwest. The Torres Strait connects it with the Coral Sea on the east. Most of the Arafura Sea is underlain by the Arafura

Tuesday, September 21, 2004


Japanese �Dainichi-kyo, � text of late Tantric Buddhism and a principal scripture of the large Japanese Buddhist sect known as Shingon (�True Word�). The text received a Chinese translation, under the title Ta-jih Ching, about AD 725, and its esoteric teachings were propagated a century later in Japan by Kukai. These teachings, which have been called cosmotheism, centre upon Mahavairocana (in Japanese,

Monday, September 20, 2004


Steam turbine invented in the 1st century AD by Heron of Alexandria and described in his Pneumatica. The aeolipile was a hollow sphere mounted so that it could turn on a pair of hollow tubes that provided steam to the sphere from a cauldron. The steam escaped from the sphere from one or more bent tubes projecting from its equator, causing the sphere to revolve. The aeolipile

Sunday, September 19, 2004


Layamon describes himself

Saturday, September 18, 2004

Herat School

15th-century style of miniature painting that flourished in Herat, western Afghanistan, under the patronage of the Timurids. Shah Rokh, the son of the Islamic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), founded the school, but it was his son Baysunqur Mirza (died 1433) who developed it into an important centre of painting, bringing to his court artists from all over Persia and Afghanistan.

Thursday, September 16, 2004


The son of the emperor Koko, Uda was one of the few rulers during this period whose mother was not a member of the Fujiwara family, which, partly through intermarriage with the imperial line, dominated Japan from 859 to 1160. During the first part of Uda's reign, Mototsune, the head of the Fujiwara house, occupied the post of kampaku,

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Montagna, Bartolommeo

His most important work is

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Vail, Theodore Newton

After a highly successful career in the railway postal service, Vail was persuaded in 1878 to join Bell Telephone as general manager. During his active tenure in this

Monday, September 13, 2004

Houston, University Of

State university system consisting of the main campus in Houston, Texas, U.S., the downtown campus in Houston, and branches at Clear Lake and Victoria. Additional locations at Cinco Ranch and Sugar Land provide upper-level undergraduate and graduate programs. The main campus consists of 12 colleges, including the Cullen College of Engineering, the Conrad N. Hilton College

Sunday, September 12, 2004


Offspring of a lion and a tigress. The liger is a zoo-bred hybrid, as is the tigon, the result of mating a tiger with a lioness. It is probable that neither the liger nor the tigon occurs in the wild, as differences in the behaviour and habitat of the lion and tiger make interbreeding unlikely. The liger and the tigon possess features of both parents, in variable proportions,

Saturday, September 11, 2004


In mammals, the characteristic threadlike outgrowths of the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) that form an animal's coat, or pelage. Hair is present in differing degrees on all mammals. On adult whales, elephants, sirenians, and rhinoceroses body hair is limited to scattered bristles. In most other mammals the hair is abundant enough to form a thick coat, while humans

Friday, September 10, 2004


Most of the people of the surrounding area live in tribal communities and are engaged in agriculture, with rice, sugarcane, and oilseeds the biggest crops. The region also has rich mineral deposits, including

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Eagle Owl

(Bubo bubo), bird of the family Strigidae (order Strigiformes), characterized by its large size (often 70 centimetres [about 2.3 feet] long), two tufts of feathers on the head (ear tufts), and large orange eyes. The overall coloration is tawny, mottled with brown, lighter below. The eagle owl roosts and breeds within rocky niches and hollow trees. At twilight it perches on a branch while

Wednesday, September 08, 2004


The plumbago, or leadwort, order of dicotyledonous flowering plants comprising the family Plumbaginaceae, with 10 genera of herbs and shrubs, found throughout the world but especially in semi-arid salt steppes and seacoasts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. The plants are characterized by alternating, simple leaves that often bear glands

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Strand, Mark

Educated at Antioch College (B.A., 1957), Yale University (B.F.A., 1959), and the University of Iowa (M.A., 1962), Strand later taught at several American universities, including Brandeis, Princeton,

Monday, September 06, 2004

Aston, Francis William

British physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1922 for his development of the mass spectrograph, a device that separates atoms or molecular fragments of different mass and measures those masses with remarkable accuracy. Aston used the mass spectograph to discover a large number of nuclides

Sunday, September 05, 2004


The dye termed young fustic (zante fustic, or Venetian sumac) is derived from the wood

Saturday, September 04, 2004

Karasi Dynasty

Founded by Karasi, a frontier ruler under Seljuq suzerainty, the principality had two branches, with their respective centres in Balikesir and Bergama (Pergamum). Of the sons of Karasi, Demirhan was defeated by the Ottoman ruler Orhan, and Balikesir was annexed (c. 1345). The coastal region of �anakkale-Troy

Friday, September 03, 2004

Jansky, Karl (guthe)

In 1928 Jansky joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey, where his assignment was to track

Thursday, September 02, 2004

Dafydd Ap Edmwnd

Poet who authoritatively classified and defined the 24 Welsh bardic metres (announced at the Carmarthen eisteddfod, or poets' assembly, in 1451). A master of bardic forms, he wrote elegant and technically perfect love lyrics, eulogies, and elegies. His works are collected in Gwaith Dafydd ab Edmwnd (ed. by Thomas Roberts, 1914).

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Giant Mountains

The traditional textile industry - wool, cotton, and