Saturday, July 31, 2004


The most famous example of this genre known in the Western world

Friday, July 30, 2004


The ramie plant has been cultivated

Thursday, July 29, 2004

Defoe, Daniel

English novelist, pamphleteer, and journalist, author of Robinson Crusoe (1719 - 22) and Moll Flanders (1722).

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Claudius Gothicus

Claudius was an army officer under the emperor Gallienus from 260 to 268 - a period of devastation of much of the Roman Empire by invading tribes. Rising to the command of Gallienus' newly

Tuesday, July 27, 2004



Monday, July 26, 2004


Megye (county), northwestern Hungary, bordering Austria and Slovakia to the north. It contains some of the nation's richest farmland, supporting sugar beets, apricots, and livestock. In the west-central part of the megye is the Hans�g, a region of swamps and moorland, partly drained and recovered through canalization. Between the Danube main channel and the Moson arm

Sunday, July 25, 2004

France, History Of, Internal conflict on the left

Throughout the 1920s, however, much of the working class remained alienated from a regime that showed little concern for social reform. The CGT had emerged from the war with redoubled strength and energy, its membership swelled by the workers who had poured into new war industries in the Paris region. The Clemenceau government had rewarded labour for its war effort by

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Delhi Zoological Park

The collection includes good breeding groups of white tigers and brow-antlered deer. Many of the animals are displayed in barless, moated enclosures, while a colony

Friday, July 23, 2004

Drag Racing

Contestants line

Thursday, July 22, 2004

Volcano, Lava domes

Landforms of this sort consist of steep domal mounds of lava so viscous that the lava piles up over its vent without flowing away. The rock types that form lava domes are generally andesites, dacites, or rhyolites. Somehow these viscous lavas have lost much of their gas content in prior eruptions or by slow rise to the surface. Even so, it is not unusual for an actively

Wednesday, July 21, 2004

Uzbekistan, Transportation

The great obstacle to further development of markets for Uzbekistan's copious truck gardening and fruit growing remains the antiquated means of distribution. Neither the surface nor air transport now available can efficiently or with adequate refrigeration handle the volume produced in Uzbekistan and needed by the Baltic states, Russia, Belarus, and

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Cond�, Henri-jules De Bourbon, 5e Prince De (5th Prince Of)

Known from 1646 as the Duc d'Enghien, he was taken to and fro by his mother during the Fronde and eventually into exile with his father, returning to France in 1659. He was married in 1663 to Anne of Bavaria, daughter of Edward, Prince Palatine. At this time he was proposed as

Monday, July 19, 2004


Limassol's rise from a humble market town between the ancient settlements of Amathus and Curium took place at the end of the Byzantine Empire, when Richard I the Lion-Heart landed

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Malan, Daniel F(ran�ois)

Malan was educated at Victoria College, Stellenbosch, and at the University

Saturday, July 17, 2004


Also called �dichroite� or �iolite� blue silicate mineral that occurs as crystals or grains in igneous rocks, only as a result of contamination of the magma by aluminous sediment. Most typical, however, are its occurrences in thermally altered clayey sediments surrounding igneous intrusions and in schists and paragneisses. Precambrian deposits of the Laramie Range, Wyo., U.S., contain more than 500,000 tons

Friday, July 16, 2004


Also called �Calamus, � hollow, horny barrel of a bird's feather, used as the principal writing instrument from the 6th century until the mid-19th century, when steel pen points were introduced. The strongest quills were obtained from living birds in their new growth period in the spring. Only the five outer wing feathers (follicles) were considered suitable for writing; the second and third were

Thursday, July 15, 2004


Perennially frozen ground, a naturally occurring material with a temperature colder than 0� C (32� F) continuously for two or more years. Such a layer of frozen ground is designated exclusively on the basis of temperature. Part or all of its moisture may be unfrozen, depending on the chemical composition of the water or the depression of the freezing point by capillary forces.

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Thomas Jefferson University

Private, state-aided, coeducational institution of higher education in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. It has one of the largest independent medical schools in the United States. The university comprises Jefferson Medical College, the College of Health Professions, the College of Graduate Studies, and a teaching hospital, the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital.

Monday, July 12, 2004


Traditional emirate centred in what is now Adamawa state, eastern Nigeria. The emirate was founded by Modibbo Adama, who was one of Sheikh Usman dan Fodio's commanders and who began a Fulani jihad (holy war) in 1809 against the non-Muslim peoples of the region. Adama moved the capital of his kingdom, which was then known as Fumbina, several times before settling it finally in

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Levalloisian Stone-flaking Technique

Toolmaking technique of prehistoric Europe and Africa, characterized by the production of large flakes from a tortoise core (prepared core shaped much like an inverted tortoise shell). Such flakes, seldom further trimmed, were flat on one side, had sharp cutting edges, and are believed to have been used as skinning knives. Sometimes the butts of Levalloisian flakes

Saturday, July 10, 2004

China, Prehistory

Scholarly analyses include Chi Li, The Beginnings of Chinese Civilization (1957, reprinted 1968); Kwang-chih Chang, The Archaeology of Ancient China, 4th ed., rev. and enlarged (1986), a pioneering, comprehensive synthesis based on the coverage of excavations reported to the end of 1985; David N. Keightley (ed.), The Origins of Chinese Civilization (1983), a collection of articles about environment and agriculture, cultures and peoples, and the genesis of the state; Jessica Rawson, Ancient China: Art and Archeology (1980), a study of the artistic significance of Neolithic and Bronze Age artifacts; William Watson, Cultural Frontiers in Ancient East Asia (1971), an illustrated analysis of cultural interaction; and Rukang Wu and John W. Olsen (eds.), Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology in the People's Republic of China (1985), an account of Chinese research on early man.

Friday, July 09, 2004


Flight beyond Earth's atmosphere. This article deals with the basic concepts associated with the launch and return of unmanned and manned spacecraft and their travel, navigation, and rendezvous and docking in space. For the development of space travel and discussions of spacecraft and space programs and their contributions to scientific knowledge

Thursday, July 08, 2004

San Fernando Valley

Valley in southern California, U.S., lying northwest of downtown Los Angeles, bounded by the San Gabriel (north and northeast), Santa Susana (north), and Santa Monica (south) mountains, and the Simi Hills (west). The valley, originally an agricultural area, occupies 260 square miles (670 square km) and is the location of several Los Angeles suburban residential communities including

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

Aromatic Compound

Any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecular structure includes one or more planar rings of atoms joined by covalent bonds of two different kinds. The term aromatic was first applied about 1860 to a group of hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar and distinguished by their odours, which are much stronger than those of other groups of hydrocarbons; in chemistry,

Tuesday, July 06, 2004


In Japan, the official guiding philosophy of the Tokugawa period (1603 - 1867). This philosophy profoundly influenced the thought and behaviour of the educated class. The tradition, introduced into Japan from China by Zen Buddhists in the medieval period, provided a heavenly sanction for the existing social order. In the Neo-Confucian view, harmony was maintained by a reciprocal

Monday, July 05, 2004


The youngest son of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, Philip was destined for the church. After being provost of the cathedral at Aachen, he was, in 1190 or 1191, elected bishop of W�rzburg. Shortly after the death of his brother Frederick

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Mclean, John

After two terms in the U.S.

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Pack, Otto Von

Pack, a Saxon nobleman, studied law at the University of Leipzig, after which he entered the service of George, duke of Saxony. By 1519 most important governmental matters in Saxony were entrusted to him, and he represented his

Friday, July 02, 2004

Biblical Literature, Rule by the Herods

The Herods who followed were under the control of Rome. Herod the Great, son of Antipater of Idumaea, was made king of Judaea, having sided with Rome, and he ruled with Roman favour (37 - 4 BC). Though he was a good statesman and architect, he was hated by the Jews as a foreigner and semi-Jew. Jesus was born a few years before the end of his reign, and �the slaughter of the innocents,� young children

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Great Britain

First Atlantic ocean liner that was built of iron and had screw propulsion. It was the world's largest ship at the time of its launching (1843) and was 322 feet (98 m) long with a tonnage of 3,270. Designed by the British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel originally as a paddle steamer and built at Bristol, it was equipped with screw machinery that was supplemented by sails on six (later five)