Wednesday, June 30, 2004

Molecular Biology

Field of science concerned with studying the chemical structures and processes of biological phenomena at the molecular level. Of growing importance since the 1940s, molecular biology developed out of the related fields of biochemistry, genetics, and biophysics. The discipline is particularly concerned with the study of proteins, nucleic acids, and enzymes - i.e., the

Tuesday, June 29, 2004

Coin, Switzerland

The coinage of Switzerland illustrates its varying fortunes. First there was the gold money of the Merovingian kings, among whose mints were Basel, Lausanne, St. Maurice-en-Valais, and Sitten (Sion). The silver deniers that Charlemagne made the coinage of the empire were issued by fewer mints. The dukes of Swabia began to strike at Z�rich in the 10th century, and the empire

Monday, June 28, 2004

Le Maistre, Antoine

Important figure in the Jansenist religious movement in France, a member of the Arnauld family (q.v.).

Sunday, June 27, 2004

Peretz, I.l.

Peretz began writing in Hebrew but soon turned to Yiddish. For his tales, he drew material from the lives of impoverished Jews of eastern Europe. Critical of their

Saturday, June 26, 2004

Wupatki National Monument

The monument comprises more than 800 pre-Columbian

Friday, June 25, 2004

Ryle, Gilbert

Ryle gained first-class honours at Queen's College, Oxford, and became a lecturer at Christ Church College in 1924. Throughout his career, which remained centred at Oxford, he attempted - as Waynflete professor of metaphysical

Thursday, June 24, 2004

Interior Design, Classic movement after the Revolution, 1785 - 1835

Even after the American Revolution, English decorative influence predominated in the United States, in spite of greatly increased contacts with French thought and ideas. Although many leaders like Thomas Jefferson wished to see a complete break with English traditions, the Georgian forms of colonial days persisted in common usage till 1800 or after. By 1785, however, the

Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Saarinen, (gottlieb) Eliel

He became the foremost architect of his generation in Finland before he moved to the U.S. in 1923. By 1914 he was widely known in Europe

Tuesday, June 22, 2004

Black Friday

In U.S. history, Sept. 24, 1869, when plummeting gold prices precipitated a securities market panic. The crash was a consequence of an attempt by financier Jay Gould and railway magnate James Fisk to corner the gold market and drive up the price. The scheme depended on keeping government gold off the market, which the manipulators arranged through political influence. When

Monday, June 21, 2004


Knight commander of the Bath, member of the second highest rank of knightly class in a British order of knighthood. See Bath, The Most Honourable Order of the.

Sunday, June 20, 2004

Locomotion, Invertebrates

As in the protozoans, aquatic locomotion in invertebrates (animals without backbones) consists of both swimming and bottom movements. In swimming, the propulsive force is derived entirely from the interaction between the organism and the water; in bottom movements, the bottom surface provides the interacting surface. Whereas some bottom movements are identical

Saturday, June 19, 2004

Kirkpatrick, Ralph

Kirkpatrick studied piano from age six and began to play harpsichord in 1930. He graduated from Harvard University in 1931 and then went to Paris to continue his studies. His teachers included Wanda Landowska, the French conductor

Friday, June 18, 2004

Wright Glider Of 1902

Biplane glider designed and built by Wilbur and Orville Wright in Dayton, Ohio, during the late summer of 1902. Tested during the autumn of 1902 and again in 1903 at the Kill Devil Hills, four miles south of the village of Kitty Hawk on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, the 1902 glider demonstrated that the Wright brothers had solved the key problems blocking the route to heavier-than-air

Thursday, June 17, 2004


A predominantly Western movement whose followers practice witchcraft and nature worship and who see it as a religion based on pre-Christian traditions of northern and western Europe. It spread through England in the 1950s and subsequently attracted followers in Europe and the United States.

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Smith, Seba

A graduate of Bowdoin College, Smith founded (1829) the Portland Courier, in which the Major's fictional letters first appeared in January 1830, continuing later in the National Intelligencer until July 1853. Major Jack was a common man magnified as oracle, a Yankee

Tuesday, June 15, 2004

Arnold, Matthew

English Victorian poet and literary and social critic, noted especially for his classical attacks on the contemporary tastes and manners of the �Barbarians� (the aristocracy), the �Philistines� (the commercial middle class), and the �Populace.� He became the apostle of �culture� in such works as Culture and Anarchy (1869).

Monday, June 14, 2004


In normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness - not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it. Such a theory

Sunday, June 13, 2004


State or action of one who has no established home and drifts from place to place without visible or lawful means of support. Traditionally a vagrant was thought to be one who was able to work for his maintenance but preferred instead to live idly, often as a beggar. The punishment for this ranged from branding and whipping to conscription into the military services

Saturday, June 12, 2004

World War Ii, Allied policy and strategy: Octagon (Quebec II) and Moscow, 1944

The progress of the Soviet armies toward central and southeastern Europe made it all the more urgent for the western Allies to come to terms with Stalin about the fate of the �liberated� countries of eastern Europe. London had already proposed to Moscow in May 1944 that Romania and Bulgaria should be zones for Soviet military operation, Yugoslavia and Greece - whose royalist

Friday, June 11, 2004

Price System

A means of organizing economic activity. It does this primarily by coordinating the decisions of consumers, producers, and owners of productive resources. Millions of economic agents who have no direct communication with each other are led by the price system to supply each other's wants. In a modern economy the price system enables a consumer to buy a product he

Thursday, June 10, 2004

Activation Energy

In chemistry, the minimum amount of energy that is required to activate atoms or molecules to a condition in which they can undergo chemical transformation or physical transport. In terms of the transition-state theory (q.v.), the activation energy is the difference in energy content between atoms or molecules in an activated or transition-state configuration and

Wednesday, June 09, 2004

Smith, Charlotte

English novelist and poet, highly praised by the novelist Sir Walter Scott. Her poetic attitude toward nature was reminiscent of William Cowper's in celebrating the �ordinary� pleasures of the English countryside. Her radical attitudes toward conventional morality (the novel Desmond tells of the innocent

Tuesday, June 08, 2004


Heavy draft-horse breed that originated in the Perche region of France. The breed probably stems from the Flemish �great horse� of the Middle Ages; modified by Oriental blood to develop a coach-horse type, it was changed again in the 19th century by introduction of draft-type blood to produce animals for heavy farm work. Although a few Percherons were imported earlier,

Monday, June 07, 2004

Carlsbad Decrees

The occasion of the meeting was

Sunday, June 06, 2004


Asturias was an independent Christian kingdom between 718 and 910 and was formed by Visigothic nobles and officials

Saturday, June 05, 2004

World War I, Rival strategies and the Dardanelles campaign, 1915 - 16

Erich von Falkenhayn had succeeded the dispirited Moltke as chief of the German general staff in September 1914. By the

Friday, June 04, 2004

Pacific Ocean, The trade winds

The trade winds of the Pacific represent the eastern and equatorial parts of the air circulation system; they originate in the subtropical high-pressure zones that are most pronounced, respectively, over the northeast and southeast Pacific between the 30th and 40th parallels N and S. The obliquity of the ecliptic (an angle of approximately 23 1/2� that is the difference between

Thursday, June 03, 2004


City, seat (1748) of Frederick county, north-central Maryland, U.S., on a tributary of the Monocacy River 47 miles (76 km) west of Baltimore. Laid out in 1745 as Frederick Town, it was presumably named for Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore, although it may have been for Frederick Louis, prince of Wales. The British Stamp Act received its first repudiation from jurists in the Frederick County

Wednesday, June 02, 2004

Akwapim-togo Ranges

Narrow belt of ridges and hills in Ghana, western Africa. They extend in a southwest-northeast line for about 200 miles (320 km) from the Densu River mouth (near Accra) on the Atlantic coast to the boundary with Togo. Averaging 1,500 feet (460 m) in height, the hills continue eastward to the Niger River as the Togo Mountains in Togo and as the Atakora Mountains in Benin, and they contain isolated

Tuesday, June 01, 2004

Delisle, Guillaume

A brother of the astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle and a student of the astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini, Delisle learned to fix accurate positions by astronomical observation. The accuracy of his continental outlines and his reduction of gross errors in determining lines of longitude