Sunday, May 30, 2004

Cambrai, Treaty Of

Also called �Paix Des Dames� (French: �Peace of the Ladies�; Aug. 3, 1529), agreement ending one phase of the wars between Francis I of France and the Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Charles V; it temporarily confirmed Spanish (Habsburg) hegemony in Italy. After a series of successes, Charles had defeated the French forces at Pavia in Italy in 1525 and forced Francis to sign the punitive Treaty of Madrid. Fearful of Charles's

Saturday, May 29, 2004


In the late 18th century the Durrani took up agriculture. Under Ahmad Shah Durrani and Timur Shah, the Durrani constituted the most significant political and

Friday, May 28, 2004


There is little material evidence of the existence of the porch before the period of Classical antiquity, although Egyptian

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Novel, Apprenticeship

The Bildungsroman, or novel about upbringing and education, seems to have its beginnings in Goethe's work, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1796), which is about the processes by which a sensitive soul discovers its identity and its role in the big world. A story of the emergence of a personality and a talent, with its implicit motifs of struggle, conflict, suffering, and success,

Wednesday, May 26, 2004

Antarctica, Biological resources

Resources of the sea first attracted people to Antarctica and provided the only basis for commercial activity in this region for many years. Commercial fur sealing began about 1766 in the Falkland Islands and rapidly spread to all subantarctic islands in the zeal to supply the wealthy markets of Europe and China. Immense profits were made, but the toll was equally immense.

Tuesday, May 25, 2004

Chicago And North Western Transportation Company

The railroad was incorporated in 1859 as a successor to the foreclosed Columbus, Hocking Valley and Toledo Railway. Its first president was William Butler Ogden, the first mayor of Chicago. A constituent company that was acquired

Monday, May 24, 2004

Chaste Tree

Its pliable twigs are used in basketry, and its red fruits are used for flavouring. The undersides of its five- to seven-lobed leaves and its branches are white felted. It is native

Sunday, May 23, 2004


Also called �Chang-tien�, Pinyin �Zibo�, or �Zhangdian� industrial city and municipality (shih), central Shantung Province (sheng), China. The core of the present 1,135-sq-mi (2,935-sq km) autonomous subprovincial-level municipality was formed under the People's Republic by amalgamating the two counties (hsien) of Tzu-ch'eng (Tzu-ch'uan) and Po-shan, which together form the richest coal field and mining area in the province. Tzu-ch'eng was an

Saturday, May 22, 2004

Stefan Du

King of Serbia (1331 - 46) and �Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks� (1346 - 55), the greatest ruler of medieval Serbia, who promoted his nation's influence and gave his people a new code of laws.

Friday, May 21, 2004


Town, southeastern Ecuador. It lies on the Upano River along the eastern slopes of the Andes, at an elevation of 3,445 feet (1,050 m). Founded by the Spanish captain Jos� Villanueva Maldonado in the mid-16th century as the city of Sevilla del Oro (�Golden Seville�), it was a large settlement for several decades and prospered by the exploitation of nearby alluvial gold deposits. After its

Thursday, May 20, 2004

Pacific Ocean, The westerlies

Within the belts of the westerly winds, cold easterly winds from polar regions meet the warm westerly winds of the middle latitudes, causing the formation of the traveling depressions characteristic of middle latitudes. The zone of convergence, or polar front, is most strongly developed in winter when the contrast in temperature and humidity of the air between

Wednesday, May 19, 2004


Major division of the bryozoans (small, colonial, aquatic invertebrate animals) that first appeared during the Jurassic period (208 to 144 million years ago). Individual members of the cheilostome colony are protected by a calcareous or chitinous covering that may be closed by a lidlike structure, an operculum. The cheilostomes are exclusively marine animals, and the plantlike

Tuesday, May 18, 2004

Brentano, Lujo

Brentano received his Ph.D. in economics in 1867 from the University of G�ttingen and was professor of political theory from 1871 to 1931, successively, at the Universities

Monday, May 17, 2004

Calvus, Gaius Licinius Macer

Calvus was a son of the annalist Licinius Macer. As an orator he was the leader of a group who opposed the florid Asiatic school, taking the simplest Attic orators as their model. Of his speeches, 21 are mentioned, the most famous being those delivered against Publius Vatinius,

Sunday, May 16, 2004

Lenclos, Ninon De

From her father, Henri de Lenclos, sieur de La Douardi�re, she acquired a lasting interest in Epicurean philosophy. Although her father fled from France after killing a man in 1632, she remained in Paris and established there a salon that attracted a number of the most prominent literary and political figures of the age. Her

Saturday, May 15, 2004

Pappataci Fever

Also called �phlebotomus fever, �three-day fever�, or �sandfly fever� acute, infectious, febrile disease caused by a phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) and producing temporary incapacitation. It is transmitted to humans by the bloodsucking female sand fly (notably Phlebotomus papatasii, P. perniciosus, and P. perfiliewsi) and is prevalent in the moist subtropical countries of the Eastern Hemisphere lying between latitude 20� and 45� N, particularly

Friday, May 14, 2004

Radbruch, Gustav

Radbruch's legal philosophy grew out of the neo-Kantian principle that

Thursday, May 13, 2004

Biblical Literature

The Old Testament is a collection of writings that was first compiled and preserved as the sacred books of the ancient Hebrew people. As the Bible of the

Wednesday, May 12, 2004


Provincia, extreme northwestern Argentina, bordering Chile (west) and Bolivia (north), having an area of 20,548 square miles (53,219 square km). It comprises several cordilleras of the Andes - reaching elevations of 16,500 feet (5,000 m) and separated by a bleak plateau 11,500 feet (3,500 m) high called the Puna de Atacama - that descend on the east to form sub-Andean ranges and valleys. The eastern Andean and sub-Andean

Tuesday, May 11, 2004

Encyclopedia Americana, The

First published in 1829 - 33, with subsequent editions in 1911 (20 volumes) and 1918 - 20 (30 volumes), and thereafter continuously revised, Americana is international in scope and is known for its

Monday, May 10, 2004


In epistemology and psychology, a form of Empiricism that limits experience as a source of knowledge to sensation or sense perceptions. Sensationalism is a consequence of the notion of the mind as a tabula rasa, or �clean slate.� In ancient Greek philosophy, the Cyrenaics, proponents of a pleasure ethic, subscribed unreservedly to a sensationalist doctrine. The medieval

Sunday, May 09, 2004

Enchanter's Nightshade

Any herbaceous perennial plant of the genus Circaea, in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae), that occurs in damp woodlands of the Northern Hemisphere. The plants have slender stems with opposite leaves. The small, white, two-petaled flowers grow in clusters, and the fruits have hooked bristles.

Saturday, May 08, 2004

Alaska Peninsula

Stretch of land extending southwest from mainland Alaska, U.S., for 500 miles (800 km) between the Pacific (southeast) and Bristol Bay, an arm of the Bering Sea. The volcanic Aleutian Range runs along its entire length. It is the site of the Katmai National Park and Preserve, the Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve (qq.v.), and the Becharof, Alaska Peninsula, and Izembek National

Friday, May 07, 2004

Chanel, Gabrielle

Byname �Coco � French dress designer who ruled over Parisian haute couture for almost six decades. Her elegantly casual designs inspired women of fashion to abandon complicated, uncomfortable clothes and to adopt her now-classic innovations - i.e., jersey dresses and suits, bell-bottom trousers, bobbed hair, trench coats, turtleneck sweaters, costume jewelry,

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Furniture, The American colonies

While the Southern planter still depended largely upon London for his fine furnishings, the

Wednesday, May 05, 2004


Antigens that provoke an allergic reaction are called allergens. Typical allergens include pollens, drugs, lints, bacteria, foods, and dyes or chemicals. The immune system contains several mechanisms

Tuesday, May 04, 2004


School of scientific thought - the germ of which dates from Aristotle - that attempts (in opposition to mechanism and organicism) to explain the nature of life as resulting from a vital force peculiar to living organisms and different from all other forces found outside living things. This force is held to control form and development and to direct the activities

Monday, May 03, 2004


City, Barcelona provincia, in the comunidad aut�noma (�autonomous community�) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. The city, just north of Barcelona in the Vall�s parish, originated as an Iberian and Roman settlement known as Arragona and became a medieval fief of the Castle of Arahona. Called Sabadell in the 12th century, in 1373 it was incorporated as a royal village (with municipal

Sunday, May 02, 2004


The county was created

Saturday, May 01, 2004

France, History Of, The conquest of Burgundy

In spite of these partitions, the Frankish kings continued their conquests. One of their primary concerns was to extend their dominion over the whole of Gaul. It took two campaigns to overcome the Burgundian kingdom. In 523 Clodomir, Childebert I, and Chlotar I, as allies of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, moved into Burgundy, whose king, Sigismund, Theodoric's son-in-law,