Friday, April 30, 2004

Enders, John Franklin

Enders was a student of

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Race, Building the myth of black inferiority

A number of 18th-century political and intellectual leaders publicly asserted that Africans were naturally inferior and that they were indeed best suited for slavery. A few intellectuals revived an older image of all living things, the scala naturae (Latin: �scale of nature�), or Great Chain of Being, to demonstrate that nature or God had made men unequal. This ancient

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

China, Art

Late Shang culture is also defined by the size, elaborate shapes, and evolved decor of the ritual bronzes, many of which were used in wine offerings to the ancestors and some of which were inscribed with ancestral dedications such as �Made for Father Ting.� Their surfaces were ornamented with zoomorphic and theriomorphic elements set against intricate backgrounds

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Coolidge, Grace

Eventually she built her own house, which she lent to navy personnel during World War II. She died of heart disease in 1957 and was buried beside her husband and son at the Plymouth Notch Cemetery in Plymouth, Vermont. Like other presidents' wives, she lamented that she had to subjugate her private self to her public role: �This was I and yet not I - this was the wife of the President of the United States and she took precedence over me.� In the process, however, Grace Coolidge joined that small group of first ladies who are rated as more successful at their jobs than their husbands were at their presidencies.

Monday, April 26, 2004

Diego Garcia

Discovered by the Portuguese in the early 16th century, it was for

Sunday, April 25, 2004


(In), chemical element, rare metal of main Group IIIa, or boron group, of the periodic table. Of a brilliant, silvery-white lustre, indium was discovered (1863) by Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter while they were examining zinc ore samples. The presence of a predominant indigo spectral line suggested the name. Softer than lead and quite plastic, indium can be scratched with

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Calendar Of 1995

With near unanimous consent (292-15), members of Ukraine's Supreme Council (parliament) voted to oust the Cabinet of Pres. Leonid Kuchma. The vote of no confidence cast by numerous former communist legislators was generally interpreted as an expression of dissatisfaction with Kuchma's reforms. Some analysts, however, suggested that the president

Friday, April 23, 2004

Denakil Plain

Also spelled �Danakil, �also called �Dankali, � arid lowland of northern Ethiopia and southeastern Eritrea, bordering Djibouti. It lies at the northern extreme of the Great Rift Valley and the Awash River. Live volcanoes (often called the Denakil Alps) separate it from the Red Sea. Any water that comes into the plain evaporates there; no streams flow out from it. The Kobar Sink, a huge basin in the northern part of the

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Ai Qing

The son of a well-to-do landowner, Ai Qing was encouraged to learn Western languages. He studied painting in Paris

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Peter Damian, Saint

Educated at Ravenna, Faenza, and Parma, he abandoned his teaching career (1035) to enter the hermitage of Fonte Avellana in the Apennines, where he was chosen prior in 1043. Peter's zeal for reform, particularly his advocacy of

Tuesday, April 20, 2004


Town, eastern Madagascar. It lies at the mouth of the Mananjary River. A port on the Indian Ocean and the Pangalanes Canal, it handles coastal shipments of coffee, vanilla, cacao, olives, and rice. It is at the end of a highway from Fianarantsoa (85 miles [137 km] northwest). Pop. (1978 est.) 15,200.

Monday, April 19, 2004


Site of a Middle Neolithic settlement (end of the 3rd millennium BC) on the shores of Lake Feder (Federsee) in southeastern Baden-W�rttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. Foundations of 25 rectangular buildings arranged in an irregular row along the shoreline were uncovered in the peat wetland by R. Schmidt in 1930. Approximately 20 of the buildings were two-room houses averaging

Sunday, April 18, 2004

Pacific Ocean, Physical environment

Otis W. Freeman, Geography of the Pacific (1951), surveys the physical features of the ocean; and Alan E.M. Nairn and Francis G. Stehli (eds.), The Ocean Basins and Margins, vol. 7, The Pacific Ocean, 2 vol. (1985 - 88), is comprehensive and highly detailed. Zvi Ben-Avraham (ed.), The Evolution of the Pacific Ocean Margins (1989); and H.W. Menard, Marine Geology of the Pacific (1964), explore marine geology and geophysics. See also Bruno Wauthy, Physical Ocean Environment in the South Pacific Commission Area (1986), a short but valuable summary of the oceanography of the central and South Pacific, prepared as a regional report under the United Nations Environment Programme.

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Armillary Sphere

Early astronomical device for representing the great circles of the heavens, including in the most elaborate instruments the horizon, meridian, Equator, tropics, polar circles, and an ecliptic hoop. The sphere is a skeleton celestial globe, with circles divided into degrees for angular measurement. In the 17th and 18th centuries such

Friday, April 16, 2004

Military Affairs, Middle East.

The situation in Israel and the Palestinian Autonomous Areas devolved into a war in all but name. Palestinian militants used small arms, mortars, and suicide bombers, mostly against civilian targets. The Israeli military used weapons ranging from F-16 fighter jets and missile-equipped attack helicopters to tank-fired flechette rounds, which contained thousands

Thursday, April 15, 2004


City and major opencut coal-mining centre in northeastern Kazakstan, on the Ertis-Qaraghandy Canal. Coal was discovered in the region in 1876 and was mined on a small scale. Only after construction of a railway in 1953 did large-scale exploitation of Ekibastuz' rich but low-grade coal seams begin. In the 1970s Ekibastuz was the third largest coal-mining centre in the Soviet Union,

Wednesday, April 14, 2004


, Arabic �ta'ifah�, plural �tawa'if� a faction or party, as applied to the followers of any of the petty kings who appeared in Muslim Spain in a period of great political fragmentation early in the 11th century after the dissolution of the central authority of the Umayyad caliphate of C�rdoba. After the dictatorship of al-Muzaffar (reigned 1002 - 08), civil war reduced the caliphate to a puppet institution and allowed

Tuesday, April 13, 2004


Island off the North Sea coast of Germany, one of the East Frisian Islands. A part of Lower Saxony Land (state), the island is 8 miles (13 km) long and up to 1.25 miles (2 km) wide, with dunes rising to 68 feet (21 m). The northern coast is exposed to the sea, but the more sheltered water of the Wattenmeer (shoals produced by tidal water that floods wide mud flats) lies to the south between the island and

Monday, April 12, 2004

Esterhazy, Ferdinand Walsin

Having fallen deeply into debt, Esterhazy apparently sold French military secrets

Sunday, April 11, 2004

African Methodist Episcopal Church

Black Methodist church in the United States, formally organized in 1816. It developed from a congregation formed by a group of blacks who withdrew in 1787 from St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia because of restrictions in seating; blacks had been confined to the gallery of the church. Those who withdrew formed the Free African Society, the forerunner

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Maturidi, Abu Mansur Muhammad Al-

Except for the place and time of Maturidi's death, almost nothing is known about the details of Maturidi's life. He lived during a time when the Mu'tazilites, a Muslim sect, were using the techniques of Greek logical argument to attack what had

Friday, April 09, 2004

Wells, H(erbert) G(eorge)

English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian, best known for such science fiction as The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds and such comic novels as Tono-Bungay and The History of Mr. Polly.

Thursday, April 08, 2004

United Kingdom, Flag Of The

The earliest form of the flag of Great Britain, developed in 1606 and used during the reigns of James I (1603 - 25) and Charles I (1625 - 49), displayed the red cross of England superimposed on the white cross of Scotland, with the blue field of the latter. Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field. During the Commonwealth

Wednesday, April 07, 2004


Each important god had his own palace in Asgard, and many Germanic peoples believed that

Tuesday, April 06, 2004


Irish �Ceatharlach� urban district and county seat, County Carlow, Ireland, on the left bank of the River Barrow. An Anglo-Norman stronghold, the town received charters of incorporation in the 13th and 17th centuries. The keep (innermost citadel) of a 13th-century stronghold remains at the confluence of the Barrow and Burren rivers. Local industries include sugar-beet and flour processing and

Monday, April 05, 2004

Kubovy, Aryeh Leon

After settling in Israel (1948), Kubovy served that country in diplomatic posts in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and several South American countries. He was chairman of Yad Vashem (Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority)

Sunday, April 04, 2004


The Mahdists rose

Friday, April 02, 2004


Also spelled �Ninhursaga�, (Sumerian) Akkadian �Belit-ili� in Mesopotamian religion, city goddess of Adab and of Kish in the northern herding regions; she was the goddess of the stony, rocky ground, the hursag. In particular, she had the power in the foothills and desert to produce wildlife. Especially prominent among her offspring were the onagers (wild asses) of the western desert. As the sorrowing mother animal she appears

Thursday, April 01, 2004


City, Baden-W�rttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany, in the upper valley of the Breg River, in the Black Forest (Schwarzwald), northeast of Freiburg im Breisgau. First mentioned in 1179, it was a possession of the abbey of St. George until it passed to Baden in 1806. It was chartered in 1873. Furtwangen has been a centre of the Black Forest clock industry since 1740 and has a clock museum.